DOWNLOAD AKSI MASSA TAN MALAKA aksi massa tan malaka pdf. Revolusi Nasional Indonesia; Bagian dari Perang Dunia Kedua: Mobil Buick milik Brigadir . [DOWNLOAD BOOKS] Aksi Massa Tan Malaka PDF Books this is the book you are looking for, from the many other titlesof Aksi Massa Tan Malaka PDF books. Get this from a library! Aksi massa. [Tan Malaka; A Yogaswara] — Political movement against Dutch colonialism related to revolutionary history in Indonesia.

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Though put together in a very ad hoc manner, KNIs generally represented most political streams in their regions and, depending on the capacity of their members, were often key political decision-making bodies during the first years of the Revolution until their role was somewhat taken over by the regional defense councils Dewan Pertahanan Daerah.

Initially the KNIP served merely as an advisory body to the president and his cabinet, but at its first session on 16—17 Octoberit was vested with full legislative power and became the acting parlia- ment of the Republic of Indonesia during the Revolution.

KNIP membership, however, was effectively by presidential nomination, and Sukarno greatly expanded its size in order to have the Linggajati Agree- ment ratified. While the full KNIP generally exercised only legislative powers, closer supervision over the government and cabinet was exer- cised by a Working Committee Badan Pekerja that met every 10 days. A nature reserve was declared there in and a national park in In the Komodo National Park, mmassa comprises Ko- modo and Rinca Islands and the surrounding seas, became malaa United Na- tions heritage site, but the park fell into disrepair, with the number of vis- itors declining by two thirds from the 36, in The term kongsi refers commonly to a firm commercial partnership, often of several people, cemented by a sense of loyalty as well as aksk.

It was a characteristic organizational form of Chi- nese in Indonesia. On the goldfields of West Kalimantan, local kongsi became so powerful as to resemble ministates, with their own territory, government, justice system, religious centers, currency, taxation, and schools entirely independent of the sultanates of Sambas and Pontianak, and largely responsible for importing miners and exporting gold to China.

Their independence and involvement in trading salt, opium, and gunpowder led the Dutch to suppress them in the so-called Kongsi Wars.

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The term refers to three periods of warfare —, —, and — separated by periods of uneasy peace and resulting in the dissolution of all the kongsi and the imposition of Dutch control. Intherefore, Governor- General Johannes van den Bosch founded the KNIL to provide the colo- nial government with its own reliable military forces. Dutch naval forces in the archipelago, operating from a large mlaka in Surabaya, remained formally a part of the metropolitan navy.

An air wing of the KNIL was formed in The officer corps of the KNIL was always predominantly Dutch, though toward the end of the colonial period a small number of Indone- sians received officer training at the Military Academy in Breda.

Troops were di- verse in origin. Like the British in India, the Dutch favored specific indigenous ethnic groups for recruitment. From male European residents of the colony were subject to conscription for service in the militia and landstrom home guard for the defense of the colony, but in the 20th century the authorities relied increasingly on the British naval base in Singapore for their defense.

KNIL soldiers who had escaped to Australia played a small role in the reconquest of eastern Indonesia in — Troops to be demobilized were entitled to be discharged at a place of their own choosing, and around 4, Ambonese requested demobilization in Am- bon, where they would have been able to join the uprising of the Re- publik Maluku Selatan RMS against the Republic.

Common name for a group of companies involved in the extraction and sale of oil from Indonesia. Kessler and from Henri Deterding, the firm moved into the sale and distribution of oil in Asia. The Koninklijke sold most of its Indonesian holdings in. In the group took over the Billiton Belitung tin companies.

Formed in to take over interisland mail routes in the colony, the KPM was able to establish an extensive network and a virtual monopoly of interisland trade in the 20th century, as well as a reputation for high-quality, expensive service.

The company was a major target for economic nationalism after independence and from began to disengage from Indonesia, moving its resources into deep- sea shipping and steadily running down its Indonesian operations. On 3 Decemberits offices in Indonesia were seized by workers, and on the same day the company malzka its management to Amsterdam and ordered all its ships to leave Indonesian territorial waters. Those ships seized in port were later restored to the company after Lloyds in- surance agents pressured the Indonesian government to release them.

It is the sole social organization to which civil servants are ordinarily permitted to belong, ostensibly to prevent civil servants from becoming associated with sectional social interests.


Island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra and the site of major eruptions on 20 May and 26—28 Au- gust Most of the volcano collapsed into an immense caldera, caus- ing tsunamis 20 meters high that flooded neighboring coastlines, killing perhaps 36, people.

Approximately 18 cubic kilometers of ash was thrown into the atmosphere, causing bright red sunsets for two years af- ter. Further eruptions resulted in the appearance of a new island, Anak Krakatau Child of Krakatauin January It was included in the Ujung Kulon national park in The palace of an Indonesian, especially Javanese, ruler, typi- cally constructed on a north-south alignment with numerous pavilions pendopo and enclosed courtyards.

Traditionally the kraton was re- garded as the physical center of the kingdom and the point from which royal power radiated. The mixing of addictive drugs, such as betel and opium, with other substances was already widespread in the archipelago before the arrival of tobacco, but by the s tobacco and clove cigarettes known as kretek perhaps onomatopoeic from the crackling sound they make as they burn had become especially common.

Initially a cottage industry, production of kretek came largely into Chinese hands in the s and expanded greatly at the expense of conventional cigarettes rokok putih afterpartly with the help of a differential tariff that disadvantaged non-kretek brands. The largest firm, Gudang Garam, based in Kediri and with 41 percent of national production inhad an annual budget. Music of the port cities of eastern Indonesia, introduced by the Portuguese in the mazsa century but rapidly assimilated, especially before the arrival of cassette decks, as the music for pasar malam night markets.

It reached Java in the late 19th century but is now closely as- msssa with the Betawi ethnic group. Kroncong typically features a simple melody line, is generally sung by a woman, and has guitar ac- companiment and sentimental lyrics. In the 20th mzssa its form was in- fluenced by Hawaiian styles. Far more than gamelan, kroncong became a vehicle for nationalist music, typified by the works of Ismail Marzuki — Since the s the popularity of kroncong akwi been some- what diminished by the rise of dangdut.

They are or were seminomadic forest dwellers, whose main akai with the outside world was by so-called silent barter, in which goods for trade were left at an agreed spot, without maassa Kubu and traders ever meeting. Region around the lower Mahakam River in east Kalimantan.

Known only from epigraphic evidence, a Hindu or Buddhist state per- haps a couple of generations old existed there in the early fifth century, followed by the state of Martapura ruled by King Mulavarman. In circa refugees from Singasari on Java settling near the river mouth founded the kingdom of Kertanegara, which converted to Islam in and later conquered the upstream remnants of Martapura.

The sultanate was subject to Banjarmasin from time to time. The Dutch signed a mo- nopoly treaty with the sultan in and annexed the region inbut. The Dutch exerted formal control over Kutai from when they signed a mxlaka with the sultan. But their control was primarily aimed at stopping the threat of British expansion. Sultan Mohammad Sulaiman r. He never- theless was obliged under terms of the treaty to provide the Dutch with men, gunpowder, and ships to prosecute their wars.

The sultan signed a further treaty with the Dutch inand coal and oil extraction began in His successor, Sultan Alimuddin, was effectively appointed by the Dutch and signed new treaties with them that further restricted his power, transferring much of the governance of the sultanate to an aristo- cratic bureaucracy.

The oil wells in the region were a target of the Japan- ese invasion in and an Australian counterinvasion in July The sultanate of Kutai was abolished in By it had become part of the province of East Kalimantan, which emerged as the leading timber exporter in Indonesia in the late s.

Javanese title of respect for learned men, now confined to specialists in Islamic learning. No clear picture of population patterns in the archipelago before the 19th century has yet been drawn, but it seems that while land was rel- atively abundant labor was often scarce, and control of labor thus was a major key to political and economic power.

Slavery also existed as a means of labor control, mostly at household level. Immigration of laborers from China began on a small scale in the 17th century but continued in waves until nalaka s, successive colonial au.

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In the early 19th century labor was still scarce enough forthe colonial authorities to introduce malaa regulations on travel and resi-dence by Indonesians, and even in the plantations of East Suma-tra still needed the state-enforced Coolie Ordinance to keep workers inplace. In the early 20th century a scarcity of skilled labor enabled theemergence of labor unions, especially on Java, while after indepen-dence unions drew strength from their association with political parties.

In the Dutch established a Kantoor van de Arbeid Labor Office ,which collected information on labor conditions and drafted labor laws. On the whole, however, the steadily growing malaoa of labor weak-ened mapaka bargaining position of workers.


The implications of rising population for agricultural labor have beendiscussed extensively. The Agricultural Involution thesis of Americananthropologist Clifford Geertz suggested that there was little true em-ployment of labor in the Javanese countryside; rather, a complex systemof lease, lease-back, sale, and sharecropping ensured that all had someright to land and that mallaka was based on that right rather than on astrict calculation of wage for service.

Fields were thus planted, tended,and harvested in a cooperative way designed akzi ensure the welfare of allmembers of the community.

More recent research has cast doubt onwhether this system was ever as extensive as Geertz seemed to imply,and most observers now see, in any case, a trend away from diffuse landrights and toward a distinct class of wage-earning agricultural laborers,whose bargaining position is severely weakened by the abundance of ru-ral labor. Manufacturing zones grew up aroundmajor cities, especially in Java, and this was one reason for a change inthe status of workers of the period.

Although unemployment was offi-cially put at 2. An industrial working class began to develop during the late s, leading to a growth in militancy among some sectors of the labor force and a notable increase in the number tann strikes.

According to gov- ernment statistics, about strikes occurred in Indonesia incom- pared to just 19 in Although the government responded in large part through repression, they also implemented a policy in the early s of raising the minimum wage annually, so that by it was al- most three times that in Under the decentralization law the provincial governments, not the labor ministry, had authority to set local minimum aksl, so this rise was not followed throughout the country.

Economic research groups and companies com- plained that raising the minimum wage would only result in more unemployment, which stood at the end of at Rising demand for skilled and semiskilled labor in the growing cities and in the colonial sugar industry dramatically strength- ened the position of workers in the colony in the early 20th century, leading first to a large number of small-scale strikes in the first decade of the century and then to the formation of labor unions.

European gov- ernment employees were unionized earliestfollowed by railway workers in the Vereeniging van Spoor-en Tramweg Personeel VSTP, Union of Rail and Tramway Personnel in and the European postal and pawnshop workers in and Since the program of these unions often included preservation of the favorable treatment of Euro- pean employees over Indonesians, indigenous workers soon began to.

There were few unions among ethnic Chinese or amongst taan employ-ees of smaller private firms. The Sarekat Islam SI and the Partai Ko-munis Indonesia PKI were both active in organizing unions, thoughtheir organizers often found themselves torn between promoting the spe-cific interests of the workers and supporting the broader program of thepolitical movement.

By there was no longer a critical shortage of skilled ,assa em-ployers became less tolerant of what they regarded as agitation and theybegan resisting union claims and, in some cases, dismissing union lead-ers. Major strikes broke out in the railway service in andinthe pawnshops inand in the ports inall of them unsuccess-ful. Although unions claimed large memberships, union discipline in-cluding the payment of membership fees was hard to enforce. By there were unions registered in the colony with a total of 82,members.

Mlaaka during the Japanese occupation, labor unions emerged in thehundreds during the Revolution, often completely taking over the man-agement of factories and plantations. A bitter strike in a state textilefactory at Delanggu in Central Java in May, in particular, contributed tothe tensions that produced the Madiun Affair. During the s ands left-wing control of maswa unions diminished with the establish-ment of more conservative trade union federations, such as Sentral Or-ganisasi Karyawan Seluruh Indonesia SOKSI.

From severe lim-its were placed on the right to strike, strikes being prohibited in essentialindustries including communications, development projects, the touristindustry, and government corporations inand massa in generalbecame vehicles for the mobilization of support for political parties,rather than purely industrial organizations.

The Basic Manpower Law of acknowledged the right of. Organizationally, too, unions were brought under close control.

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Each of these organizations became in turn a member of Golkar. It was hoped that this new fed- eration could prevent the growth of independent organizations outside the control of government. After the fall of Suharto a number of local and national labor groups came into existence, many with strong ties to nongovernmental organi- zations NGOs.

They were successful in winning better wages and con- ditions for workers in several industries, but their future influence re- mained unclear, particularly with the renewed strengthening of the military and security apparatus under Megawati Sukarnoputri.

Swidden slash-and-burn agriculture, assumed to be the earli- est form of farming in the archipelago and still practiced, especially in parts of Kalimantan.